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dc.contributor.author
Diafas, Christos
en
dc.date.accessioned
2016-02-08T14:52:59Z
dc.date.available
2016-02-09T01:00:16Z
dc.date.issued
2016-02-08
dc.identifier.uri
https://repository.ihu.edu.gr//xmlui/handle/11544/12428
dc.rights
Default License
dc.subject
CCS
en
dc.subject
cement industry
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dc.subject
life cycle assessment
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dc.subject
MEA scrubbing
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dc.subject
calcium looping
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dc.title
Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Introducing CCS Technologies in the Cement Industry
en
heal.type
masterThesis
el
heal.creatorID.email
xridias@gmail.com
heal.classification
Engineering
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heal.classification
Environment
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heal.classification
Industry
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heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Cement industries
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Cement industries--Energy consumption
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Cement industries--Energy conservation
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Cement industries--Environmental aspects
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Carbon dioxide |x Environmental aspects
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Carbon dioxide mitigation.
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Geological carbon sequestration.
heal.language
en
el
heal.access
free
el
heal.license
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
el
heal.recordProvider
School of Science and Technology, MSc in Energy Systems
el
heal.publicationDate
2016-02-04
heal.abstract
Cement is an industrial product, which is closely correlated with the economic development of a country and at the same time liable for massive amounts of energy consumption and CO2 emissions emanating during its production. In view of a global and unprecedented climate change, a crucial, yet underdeveloped, component of the toolkit for emissions reduction, is the application of carbon capture technologies, which constitute the arrest of carbon dioxide at its source, in order to prevent its emission to the atmosphere. Taking the above issues into consideration, this report analyzes the life cycle of cement in a conventional cement plant, detecting the processes which are more energy-intensive and produce more greenhouse gas emissions and scrutinizes the application of two post-combustion capture technologies, namely monoethanolamine scrubbing and calcium looping, in order to evaluate their added environmental impact and ultimately assess their effectiveness as CO2 mitigation strategies.
en
heal.tableOfContents
ABSTRACT iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF FIGURES viii INTRODUCTION 10 1.1 HISTORICAL REVIEW OF CEMENT 12 1.2 CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 13 1.3 ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY 17 1.3.1. CEMENT PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 17 1.3.2.CEMENT MANUFACTURING: AN ENERGY-INTENSIVE INDUSTRY 19 1.3.3. CEMENT AND CO2 EMISSIONS 22 1.4 CO2 MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY 26 1.4.1. THERMAL & ELECTRIC EFFICIENCY 26 Switching to Dry Process 26 Waste Heat Recovery 26 Plant Optimization & Maintenance 26 1.4.2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS 28 Introduction 28 Fuel Substitution 29 Selection Criteria - Suitable Materials 29 Benefits - Drawbacks 30 R&D Needs and Goals 31 1.4.3. CLINKER SUBSTITUTION 31 Description 31 Global clinker factor 32 Limits to implementation 32 1.5 CARBON CAPTURE IN THE CEMENT INDUSTRY 34 1.5.1. INTRODUCTION 34 1.5.2. POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE: MEA/AMINE SCRUBBING 35 Process Description 35 Advantages & Challenges 37 1.5.3. POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE: CALCIUM LOOPING CYCLE 39 Process description 39 Advantages & Challenges 41 1.5.4. OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION 42 Process description 42 Advantages & Challenges 45 1.5.5. EVALUATION OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES 46 Introduction 46 Raw material & energy consumption 46 Energy recovery potential 49 CO2 footprint - emissions reduction - capture energy penalty 50 Carbon capture costs 51 1.5.6. CURRENT BARRIERS - FUTURE ACTIONS 52 Pilot projects 52 Technical barriers 53 Economic and other barriers 54 2.1 GENERAL 55 2.2 LCA GOALS 56 2.3 LCA SCOPE DEFINITION 57 2.3.1 System boundaries 57 2.3.2 Data Acquisition - Assumptions 61 2.3.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment Categories 61 2.4 INVENTORY ANALYSIS 63 2.4.1 Case 1: CCP 63 2.4.2 Case 2: Cement plant with MEA scrubbing 65 2.4.3 Case 3: Cement plant with CaL 69 2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 71 2.5.1 General 71 2.5.2 Case 1: CCP 71 2.5.3 Case 2: Cement Plant with MEA scrubbing 74 2.5.4 Case 3: Cement plant with CaL 78 2.6 COMPARISON 83 2.6.1 Total Energy Consumption 83 2.6.2 GWP 84 NOMENCLATURE 89 REFERENCES 90 Appendix 1: Assumptions for LCI of CCP [82] 99 Appendix 2: MEA CO2 capture efficiency calculation 100 Appendix 3: Assumptions for MEA - NH3 inventory [83] 102 Appendix 4: Deduction of mass and energy input in CaL 103 Appendix 5: Low Heating Values of fuels [87] 104 Appendix 6: Calculation of electricity avoided 104
en
heal.advisorName
Heracleous, Eleni
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heal.committeeMemberName
Martinopoulos, Georgios
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heal.committeeMemberName
Papadopoulos, Agis
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heal.academicPublisher
IHU
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heal.academicPublisherID
ihu
el
heal.numberOfPages
104
el
heal.spatialCoverage
Greece
en


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