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dc.contributor.author
Bais, Michail
en
dc.date.accessioned
2016-02-10T08:34:36Z
dc.date.available
2016-02-11T01:00:17Z
dc.date.issued
2016-02-10
dc.identifier.uri
https://repository.ihu.edu.gr//xmlui/handle/11544/12431
dc.rights
Default License
dc.title
Risk assessment analysis in the installation and operation of electrical infrastructure of onshore and offshore wind farms
en
heal.type
masterThesis
el
heal.generalDescription
Electrical infrastructure is an important part of onshore and offshore wind farms and for this reason this Master Thesis analyzes the specifications and standards that must be followed in installation and operation of it. In addition, the construction schedule of each type of wind farm is described. Moreover, a risk analysis for electrical infrastructure is made based on specialists’ opinion and on risks that have been found in bibliography. Through this analysis the most significant risks during the installation and operation of electrical infrastructure are identified.
en
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind power
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind power industry
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind power plants--Design and construction
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind power plants--Environmental aspects
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind power--Technological innovations
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind turbines
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind turbines--Economic aspects
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Wind turbines--Environmental aspects
heal.language
en
el
heal.access
free
el
heal.license
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
el
heal.references
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(May 2012), “Project A ctivities”, p.72-82 [23]Morrison Hershfield (April 2012),”Construction Plan Report of HAF Wind Energy Project”, p.4 [24] Dufferin Wind Power Inc. (August 2012), “Proje ct Description Report”, p.14 [25] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Offshore Wind Far m Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.31 116 [26] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Offshore Wind Far m Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.18-20 [27] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.18 [28] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.19 [29] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.28 [30]Joakim Jeppson, Poul Erik Larsen, Ake Larsson ( September 2008), “Technical Description of Lillgrunf WPP”, Vatenfall, Energimyndigheten, p. 28 [31] J.H. den Boon , J. Sutherland, R. Whitehouse, R. Soulsby, C.J.M. St am, K. Verhoeven, M. Høgedal, T. Hald,(14th April 2015) “Scour behaviour and scour protection for monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines”, p. 3 [32] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.22 [33] Subseaworldnews, Available at: http://subseaworldnews.com/2014/09/22/jan-de-nul- provides-scour-protection-for-butendiek-owf , (Accessed at: 8/8/2015) [34] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Offshore Wind Far m Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.21-23 [35] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.21 [36] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.21 [37] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.23 [38] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.23 [39]Joakim Jeppson, Poul Erik Larsen, Ake Larsson ( September 2008), “Technical Description of Lillgrunf WPP”, Vatenfall, Energimyndigheten, p. 36 [40]Joakim Jeppson, Poul Erik Larsen, Ake Larsson ( September 2008), “Technical Description of Lillgrunf WPP”, Vatenfall, Energimyndigheten, p. 36 [41] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Offshore Wind Far m Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.26-28 [42] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.26 [43] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.27 [44] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Offshore Wind Far m Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.24-26 [45] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.24 [46] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.24 [47] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.26 [48] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.26 [49] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.33 [50] Nordzeewind (February 2008),”Off shore Wind Fa rm Egmond aan Zee General Report”, p.48 117 [51]IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Wor king Group, “Wind Power Plant Substation and Collector System Redundancy, Reliabi lity, and Economics” [52] NEPOOL Reliability Committee (April 2006), “Tr ansmission Owners and ISO-NE Substation Bus Arrangement Guideline Working Group Report” [53]NEPOOL Reliability Committee (April 2006), “Tra nsmission Owners and ISO-NE Substation Bus Arrangement Guideline Working Group Report” [54]NEPOOL Reliability Committee (April 2006), “Tra nsmission Owners and ISO-NE Substation Bus Arrangement Guideline Working Group Report” [55]NEPOOL Reliability Committee (April 2006), “Tra nsmission Owners and ISO-NE Substation Bus Arrangement Guideline Working Group Report” [56] ABB (2013), “Disconnecting Circuit Breakers Ap plication Guide”, Publication 1HSM 9543 23-03en, p. 9-10 [57]ABB, 2013-09, “Disconnecting Circuit Breakers A pplication Guide”, Publication 1HSM 9543 23-03en, p. 9-10 [58]Deligiannis V. (April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH, p.17-18 [59]Deligiannis V. (April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH, p.25-26 [60] SEA, Available at: http://www.seatrasformatori.it/en/wind-farm.html , (Accessed at: 14/8/2015) [61] Wikipedia, Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta-wye_transformer , (Accessed at: 14/8/2015) [62] Deligiannis V.(April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH,p.95-96 [63]Deligiannis V. (April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH,p.95-96 [64] ABB (2013), “HD4 Gas Insulated MV Circuit-Brea kers”, p. 5-6 [65]ABB (2013), “HD4 Gas Insulated MV Circuit-Break ers”, p. 5-6 [66]ABB (2013), “HD4 Gas Insulated MV Circuit-Break ers”, p. 5-6 [67]ABB (2015), “Instrument Transformers”, Edition 4 [68]ABB (2015), “Instrument Transformers”, Edition 4 th [69]ABB (2015), “Instrument Transformers”, Edition 4 th [70]Deligiannis V (April 2013),”Description of HV S ubstation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH, p.81-83 [71]Deligiannis V. (April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH,p.42-43 [72]Industrial Electronics,Available at: http://www.industrial-electronics.com/tdee4e_8.html , (Accessed at: 17/8/2015) [73] Electrical Knowhow, Available at:http://www.el ectrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Design- Steps-of-Preliminary-Grounding-System-For-AC-Substa tions.html, (Accessed at: 17/8/2015) [74]Deligiannis V. (April 2013),”Description of HV Substation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH,p.42-43 [75]Geospatial, Available at: http://geospatial.blogs.com/geospatial/2012/07/desi gning- lightning-protection-for-substations.html , (Accessed at: 18/8/2015) [76] IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group (2009), “Reactive Power Compensation for Wind Power Plants” [77] ABB (2014), “VArPro™ STATCOM Dynamic reactive power compensation”, p.3 [78]Philippe Maibach, Jonas Wernli, Peter Jones, (O ctober 2010), “STATCOM Technology for Wind Parks to Meet Grid Code Requirements”,ABB 118 [79] Philippe Maibach, Jonas Wernli, Peter Jones, ( October 2010), “STATCOM Technology for Wind Parks to Meet Grid Code Requirements”,ABB [80] Philippe Maibach, Jonas Wernli, Peter Jones, ( October 2010), “STATCOM Technology for Wind Parks to Meet Grid Code Requirements”,ABB [81]John D.McDonald (2006) “Electric Power Engineer ing Handbook”, Second Edition, CRC Press, p.247-248 [82]John D.McDonald (2006) “Electric Power Engineer ing Handbook”, Second Edition, CRC Press, p.252-253 [83] Office of the Attorney Central, “Safety, Healt h and Welfare at work”, Available at: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/2007/en/si/0299.html , (Accessed at: 15/9/2015) [84]Francesco Miceli, “Wind farm Construction”, Ava ilable at: http://www.windfarmbop.com/author/admin/page/3 , (Accessed at: 15/9/2015) [85] Inbal Valves, Available at: http://www.inbalvalves.com/english/s_deluge.htm , (Accessed at: 15/9/2015) [86]Writech Group Ltd, Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/63155470@N08/59260562 88/in/photostream , (Accessed at: 15/9/2015) [87] The Crown Estate, Transmission Infrastructure for Offshore Generation, “Transmission infrastructure associated with connecting offshore generation”, p.7 Available at: http://www.transmissioninfrastructure-offshoregen.c o.uk/downloads , (Accessed at: 24/8/2015) [88]The Crown Estate, Transmission Infrastructure f or Offshore Generation, “Transmission infrastructure associated with connecting offshore generation”, p.7 Available at: http://www.transmissioninfrastructure-offshoregen.c o.uk/downloads , (Accessed at: 24/8/2015) [89] ABB (2015), “Gas Insulated Switchgear ELK-04C, 145kV”, p.5 [90]Energinet (November 2013),”Offshore Substation: Earthing, Bonding and Lightning Protection”, p.6 [91]Energinet (November 2013),”Offshore Substation: Earthing, Bonding and Lightning Protection”, p.6 [92]Energinet (November 2013),”Offshore Substation: Earthing, Bonding and Lightning Protection”, p.7 [93]Energinet,” Offshore Substation: MV, LV, Signal Cables and Cable Routing”, Document no. 56008-10 Sag 10/4054 – ETS-03 v. 3, p.1-2 [94] Rms Cable, Available at: http://www.vericable.com/cables/overheadcable/acsr- cable.htm , (Accessed at: 1/10/2015) [95]Deligiannis V.(April 2013),”Description of HV S ubstation of Industrial Consumer”, AUTH,p.8 [96] ABB, “XLPE Submarine Cable Systems Attachment to XLPE La nd Cable Systems - User ́s Guide”, p.3 [97] ABB, “XLPE Submarine Cable Systems Attachment to XLPE La nd Cable Systems - User ́s Guide”, p.3 [98] ABB, “XLPE Submarine Cable Systems Attachment to XLPE La nd Cable Systems - User ́s Guide”, p.3 [99] ABB, “XLPE Land Cable Systems - User ́s Guide”, p.8 [100] Nexans, “Medium Voltage Cables up to and incl uding 36kV”, p.22 [101] Nexans, “Medium Voltage Cables up to and incl uding 36kV”, p.23 [102] Nexans, “Medium Voltage Cables up to and incl uding 36kV”, p.23 [103] Cablel, “Marine Cables Catalogue”, p.10 [104]Saud Al-Anbaria, A. 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heal.recordProvider
School of Science and Technology, MSc in Energy Systems
el
heal.publicationDate
2016-02-09
heal.abstract
12 Thesis Overview The purpose of the Master Thesis is to answer to th e following research questions: i) Which are the main differences between onshore and offshore wind farms. ii) Which are the most important steps in construction process of wind farms. iii) What kind of specifications must be followed in the design of electrical infrastructure of wind farm. iv) What kind of protection systems must be installed i n the electrical infrastructure of wind farms. v) Which are the most important risks in the installat ion and operation of electrical infrastructure of wind farms. The first chapter a technical analysis of wind farm s is made and the differences between onshore and offshore wind farms are analyzed. Speci fically, all the infrastructures and their differences between each type of wind farm are desc ribed. In addition, the differences in the investment and operation cost as well as in mai ntenance and wind resource are described. In the second chapter, the construction schedule of the two types of wind farms is analyzed and recommendations are made for the reduction of t he construction period of the plants. In the third chapter, the standards and the specifi cations that must be followed in the selection of equipment and the installation of subs tations and secondary systems for each type of wind farm are described. In the fourth chapter, the type of cables in wind f arms and the standards with which they must comply are described. In the fifth chapter, a risk analysis is made durin g the installation and operation of cables, substation and secondary systems of wind farms. In the sixth chapter, the conclusions of the risk a nalysis for hazardous events in electrical infrastructure installation and operation are descr ibed.
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heal.tableOfContents
Table of Contents List of Figures page 4 List of Tables page 7 Nomenclature page 9 Preface page 10 Acknowledgements page 1 1 Thesi s Overview page 1 2 1. Onshore and Offshore Wind Farm Technical Analysis page 1 3 1.1. Onshore Wind Farms page 1 3 1.2. Offshore Wind Farms page 1 6 1.3. Differences in Wind Resource between Onshore and Offs hore Wind Farms page 1 9 1.4. Differenc es in Maintenance between Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms page 2 1 1.5. Differences in Investment Cost between Onshore and O ffshore Wind Farms page 2 2 2. Onshore and Offshore Wind Farm Construction Schedule page 2 3 2.1. Onshore Wind Farms page 2 3 2.2. Offshore Wind Farms page 2 7 3. Specifications in Design & Installation of Substation s and Secondary Systems in Onshore & Offshore Wind Farms page 3 4 3.1. Substation and Secondary Systems of Onshore Wind Fa rm page 3 4 3.2. Substations and Sec ondary Systems of Offshore Wind Farms page 5 6 4. Specifications in Cabling in Onshore & Offshore Wind Farms page 6 2 4.1. Cable types page 6 2 4.2. HV Cables page 6 3 4.3. MV Cables page 6 7 4.4. LV Cables page 7 2 5. Risk Analysis in electric al infrastructure of Wind Farms page 7 5 5.1. Risks in Certification - TSO Requirements and Tender page 80 5.2. Risks in Cable Installation page 82 5.3. Risks in Substation Installation page 8 3 5.4. Risks in Secondary Systems Installation page 8 4 5.5. Risks in Cable Operation page 8 5 5.6. Operational Risks related with TSO page 8 6 3 5.7. Risks in S ubstation Operation page 8 7 5.8 Risks in Secondary Systems Operation page 8 8 6. Conclusions page 89 7. Appendix 1 page 91 8. Appendix 2 page 94 9. Appendix 3 p age 96 10. Appendix 4 page 105 11. Appendix 5 page 110 12. Appendix 6 p age 114 13. References page 11 5
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heal.advisorName
Giannakidis, Georgios
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heal.committeeMemberName
Martinopoulos, Georgios
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heal.committeeMemberName
Heracleous, Eleni
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heal.academicPublisher
International Hellenic University
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heal.academicPublisherID
ihu
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