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dc.contributor.author
Andreanidou, Konstantina
en
dc.date.accessioned
2016-03-30T06:46:01Z
dc.date.available
2016-03-31T00:00:13Z
dc.date.issued
2016-03-30
dc.identifier.uri
https://repository.ihu.edu.gr//xmlui/handle/11544/14458
dc.rights
Default License
dc.subject
retrofit
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dc.subject
historical building
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dc.subject
microclimate simulation
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dc.subject
energy performance
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dc.title
Retrofitting historical buildings: potential and perspectives
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heal.type
masterThesis
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heal.secondaryTitle
potential and perspectives
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heal.generalDescription
This research presents the issue of retrofitting historical buildings through the literature (existing examples from other countries) and proposes a methodology to approach the matter in Greece through the parameters of green factor in outdoor spaces as well as the surface materials used. The results of the literature review point to strategies for interventions on the historical building while the case study aims to define the potential measurements that can be applied to the external environment of the building. The study focuses on Vila Allatini, Thessaloniki, a historical building protected by strict legislation framework.The main target is to familiarize us with the effect of microclimate on the building’s energy performance. For the research, a simulation is conducted with the use of the simulation tool ENVI-met 3.1 in order to evaluate the complexity of outdoor environments, climate parameters, vegetation, surfaces and structures constantly interacting with each other. A simulation scenario is presented followed by discussion regarding its results.
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heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Historic buildings--Conservation and restoration
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Energy conservation
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Energy conservation--Environmental aspects
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Historic buildings--Energy conservation
heal.language
en
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heal.access
free
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heal.license
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
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heal.references
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[5] Bruse, M., Huttner, S., Hofmeyer, J., Seeger, D. and Simon, H. (2010). ENVI - met . Germany: ENVI - met. 89 [6] Ypeka.gr, (2015). REGULATION OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS . [Online] Available at: http://www.ypeka.gr/Default.aspx?tabid=525&languag e=el - GR [Accessed 25 Nov. 2015]. [7] Ministry of Environment and Energy, (2012). Technical Directive, Τ . Ο . Τ . Ε . Ε . 20701 - 1/2010 . Athens: Technical Chamber of Greece. < http://portal.tee.gr/portal/page/portal/tptee/totee/TOTEE - 20701 - 1 - Final - %D4%C5%C5 - 2nd.pdf > [8] HELLENIC REPUBLIC, Ministry of Modern Culture, (2002). Law No 4030, protection of ancient and modern cultural heritage . Athens: Greek Parliament. <http://www.ypeka.gr/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=WsLJDdwJvpw%3d&tabid=506&language =el - GR>. [9] HELLENIC REPUBLIC, Ministry of Modern Culture, (2012). Law No 4067, protection of ancient and modern cultural heritage . Athens: Greek Parliament. <http://www.ypeka .gr/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=5nRUKLGlL8E%3D&tabid=506&language =el - GR>. [10] Nuruzzaman, M. (2015). Urban Heat Island: Causes, Effects and Mitigation Measures - A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis , 3(2), p.67. [11] Memo n, Rizwan Ahmed, Dennis Y.C. Leung, and Liu Chunho. "A Review on the Generation, Determination and Mitigation of Urban Heat Island." ScienceDirect . Elsevier, 12 Jan. 2008. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074208600194>. [Accessed 15 Nov. 2015]. [12] Dimoudi, A. and Nikolopoulou, M. (2003). Vegetation in the urban environment: microclimatic analysis and benefits. Energy and Buildings , 35(1), pp.69 - 76. [13] Zagas, T. and Kosmopoulos, P. (2008). Contribution of Peruvian Forests to the Vi ability of Urban Space. Buildings, energy and the environment . Thessaloniki: University Studio Press, pp.45 - 60. [14] Karameris, A. (2008). Urban Green and Sustainability of Urban Agglomerations. Buildings, Energy and the Environment . Thessaloniki: Universi ty Studio Press, pp. 61 - 77. [15] Karanika, S., and I. Kosmopoulos. (2008).The Effect of Green in Open Urban Spaces. Buildings, Energy and the Environment . Thessaloniki: University Studio (2008), pp. 155 - 77. [16] Nikolopoulou, M., Baker, N. and Steemers, K. (2001). Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter. Solar Energy , 70(3), pp.227 - 235. [17] Nikolopoulou, M. and Steemers, K. (2003). Thermal comfort and psychological adaptation as a guide for designing urban spaces. Energy and Buildings , 35(1), pp.95 - 101. 90 [18] Dorer, V., Carmeliet, J., Kämpf, J., Upadhyay, G., Moonen, P., Orehounig, K. and Allegrini, J. (2013). MODELLING THE URBAN MICROCLIMATE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENERGY DEMAND OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING CLUSTERS. In: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association . France. [19] Hartman, V., Kirac, M., Zanki, V., Grozdek, M., Poletto, D. and Ronchini, C. (2013). Energy Efficiency and Energy Management in Cultural Heritage . 1st ed. [ebook] Zagreb: UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe, Venice (Italy) United Nations Development Programme in Croatia. Available at: http://www.hr.undp.org/content/croatia/en/home/library/environment_energy/ee - in - cultural - heritage.html [Accessed 14 Aug . 2015]. [20] Phoenix, T. (2015). Lessons learned: ASHRAE's approach in the refurbishment of historic and existing buildings. Energy and Buildings , 95, pp.13 - 14. [21] Mazzarella, L. (2015). Energy retrofit of historic and existing buildings. The legislativ e and regulatory point of view. Energy and Buildings , 95, pp.23 - 31. [22] Westminster City Council, Built Environment City Planning Delivery Unit Westminster City Hall, (2013). Retrofitting Historic Buildings for Sustainability . Westminster: Westminster Cit y Council. [23] Raffler, S., Bichlmair, S. and Kilian, R. (2015). Mounting of sensors on surfaces in historic buildings. Energy and Buildings , 95, pp.92 - 97. [24] Filokiprou, M., Mixail, A., Thravalou, S. and Irakleous, H. (2015). THE BIOCLIMATIC DIMENSION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF CYPRUS . Nicosia: Research Program Β IOVERNACULAR. [25] Xu, P., Shen, Y. and Hua, J. (2012). Effectiveness of energy retrofit methods in public buildings in China . PhD. Institute for Building Efficiency. [26] I.A. Meir, S.C. Ro af, I. Gilead, T. Runsheng, I. Stavi, J. Mackenzie - Bennett . The 21th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. (2004). In: Passive and Low Energy Architecture . [Online] Eindhoven: PLEA. Available at: http://alexandria.tue.nl/openaccess/635611/p084 1final.pdf [Accessed 2 Oct. 2015]. [27] Rota, M., Corgnati, S. and Di Corato, L. (2015). The museum in historical buildings: Energy and systems. The project of the Fondazione Musei Senesi. Energy and Buildings , 95, pp.138 - 143. [28] Kolonas, V. and Papamatt heaki, L. (1980). Vitaliano Poselli architect, His work in the 19th century of Thessaloniki . Thessaloniki: Paratiritis. 91 [29] Dimitris Simeonidis, (2014), recent photo of Vila Allatini, back façade across Vasilisis Olgas street [Online]. Available at: http://www.thessalonikiartsandculture.gr/thessaloniki/afieromata/vila - allatini - simerino - ktirio - perifereias - k - makedonias - thessaloniki#.VjshKCvDPMw [Accessed 27 July 15]. [30] Service of Modern Monuments and Technical Works of Centra l Macedonia, Thessaloniki [31] Vasilisis Olgas Avenue 198, (2015). Vasilisis Olgas Avenue 198 . [Online] Available at: https://www.google.gr/maps/place/%CE%9B%CE%B5%CF%89%CF%86.+%CE%92%CE %B1%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%BB%CE%AF%CF%83%CF%83%CE%B7%CF%82+%CE %8C%CE%BB%CE%B3 %CE%B1%CF%82+198,+%CE%98%CE%B5%CF%83%CF%83 %CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%BD%CE%AF%CE%BA%CE%B7+546+55/@40.593 3035,22.9543587,17z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x14a83f2b28522249:0x5c4be253638ac6 ea?hl=el [Accessed 21 Jul. 2015]. [32] Thessaloniki Building Regulation Agency , Thessaloniki, Greece [33] EPSTEIN, Y. and MORAN, D. (2006). Thermal Comfort and the Heat Stress Indices. Industrial Health , 44(3), pp.388 - 398. [34] Nicol, J. and Humphreys, M. (2002). Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildin gs. Energy and Buildings , 34(6), pp.563 - 572. [35] Ypeka.gr, (2015). Ministry of Environment and Energy > MINISTRY > PRESS OFFICE > ARCHIVE > BILLS > Details . [Online] Available at: http://www.ypeka.gr/Default.aspx?tabid=391&sni[524]=66 [Accessed 9 Nov. 201 5]. [36] Weatherspark.com, (n.d.). Historical Weather for 2014 in Thessaloniki, Greece - WeatherSpark . [Online] Available at: https://weatherspark.com/history/32210/2014/Thessaloniki - Central - Macedonia - Greece [Accessed 28 Nov. 2015]. [37] Ministry of Enviro nment and Energy, (2012). Technical Directive, Τ . Ο . Τ . Ε . Ε . 20701 - 3/2010 . Athens: Technical Chamber of Greece. < http://www.ypeka.gr/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=WsLJDdwJvpw%3d&tabid=506&language =el - GR >. [38] HNMS. 2015. Hnms.gr . [Online] Available at: http://www.hnms.gr/hnms/english/index_html . [Accessed 28 Octob er 15]. [39] Material coating of outdoor spaces and urban microclimate. (2012). Building , [Online] 7( Υ ), pp.79 - 84. Available at: http://www.ktirio.gr/system/files/2012 - 07 - 79.pdf [Accessed 30 Oct. 2015]. 92 [40] Meteo.geo.auth.gr, (2015). Online Data . [Online] Available at: http://meteo.geo.auth.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=83&Itemid=65&l ang=en [Accessed 1 Dec. 2015]. [41] Kurt, D. (2003). Net Present Value (NPV) Definition | Investopedia . [Online] Investopedia. Available at: http://www.inves topedia.com/terms/n/npv.asp [Accessed 15 Aug. 2015]. [42] Fanger, P. (1972). Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering . New York: McGraw - Hill. [43] Monteiro, L. and Alucci, M. (2006). Calibration of outdoor thermal comfort models. In: The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture . [Online] Sao Paulo: PLEA2006 - The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. Geneva, Switzerla nd, 6 - 8 September 2006 Calibration of outdoor thermal comfort models Leonardo Marques Monteiro and Marcia Peinado Alucci Department of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism. Available at: http://www.unige.ch/cuepe/html/plea2006/Vol1/PLEA2006_PAP ER314.pdf [Accessed 10 Nov. 2015]. [44] EnergyPlus. (2015). USA: U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office. [45] Huttner, S. and Bruse, M. (2009). NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE URBAN CLIMATE – A PREVIEW ON ENVI - MET 4.0. In: The seventh Internation al Conference on Urban Climate . [Online] Mainz: Johannes - Gutenberg - Universität. Available at: http://www.ide.titech.ac.jp/~icuc7/extended_abstracts/pdf/382880 - 2 - 090514010851 - 002.pdf [Accessed 28 Nov. 2015]
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heal.recordProvider
School of Science and Technology, MSc in Energy Systems
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heal.publicationDate
2016-02-17
heal.abstract
A sustainable environment should be considered through the preservation of built heritage and upgrade of its energy efficiency. Historical buildings, as bein g part of our cultural heritage will always constitute a major proportion of our surroundings. Their protection and upgrade should be a written law in the name of responsibil ity and respect towards our history. Retrofit is a “must” because of the already existing large inventory of buildings which have vast quantities of embodied energy and t hus extending their useful life makes more than sense. Unfortunately though, historical buildings are energy wasteful and thus need to be adapted to current needs and standards. Listed heritage buildings form a particular category of this stock and their retrofit needs and potential are more complex and need special attention. [1 ] Buildings consume significant amounts of energy (embodied and operational) and thus present significant saving potential. [2 ] Combining this fact with a holi stic approach regarding energy and environment , appropriate measure s can be drawn for the existing ’s building stock retrofit, putting emphasis on the microclimate and how it influences the building ’s energy performance . After all, in a long term perspective, retrofit naturally pays bac k owners and users translated to lower operational expenses, better thermal and visual comfort and subseque ntly better quality of life. In the case of work spaces and educational buildings it is translated also to higher productivity and work achievements . This research presents the issue of retrofitting historical buildi ngs through the literature (existing examples from other countries) and proposes a methodology to approach the matter in Greece through the parameters of green factor in outdoor spaces as well as the surface materials used. The results of the literature re view point to strategies for interventions on the historic al building while the case study aims to define the potential measures that can be applied to the external environment of the building. The study focuses on Vila Allatini, a historical building protected b y strict legislation framework. [3] The main target i s to familiarize us with the effect of microclimate on the building’s energy performance .
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heal.tableOfContents
Acknowledgements ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 8 List of Tables ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 10 Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 11 1 . Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 12 1.1 Objective and Scope ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 13 1.2 Structure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 14 2 . Legislation Framework ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 16 2.1 Legislation Regarding Historical Buildings ................................ ................................ ... 16 2.2 Legislation Regarding Energy Efficiency of Buildings ................................ ................. 18 3 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 19 3.1 Urban Microclimate and Thermal Comfort ................................ ................................ ... 19 3.1.1 Urban Heat Island ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 19 3.1.2 Green and the Influence on Microclimate ................................ ............................... 20 3.1.3 Green and the Influence on Thermal Comfort ................................ ......................... 21 3.2 Retrofitting Historical Buildings for Sustainability ................................ ....................... 22 3.2.1 Common Retrofit Measures ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 3.2.2 Thermal Insulation Properties ................................ ................................ ................. 24 3.2.3 Energy Systems ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 25 3.2.4 Regulation Systems ................................ ................................ ................................ . 26 3.2.5 Behavior of the Occupants ................................ ................................ ...................... 26 4 . Vila Allatini and S urroundings ................................ ................................ ........................ 27 4.1 Historical Background ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 27 4.2 Architecture and Eclecticism ................................ ................................ ......................... 29 4.3 Survey of Vila Allatini and Surroundings ................................ ................................ ...... 32 4.4 Electricity Consumption ................................ ................................ ................................ . 48 4.5 Natural Gas Consumption ................................ ................................ .............................. 51 4.6 Water Consumption ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 53 4.7 Climatic Data ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 54 7 4.8 Retrofitting Vila Allatini ................................ ................................ ................................ 55 5. The Effect of Microclimate ................................ ................................ ............................... 59 5.1 Measurements ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 60 5.1.1 Thermography ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 60 5.2 Simulation of Microclimate ................................ ................................ ........................... 66 5.2.1 ENVI - met Simulation Tool ................................ ................................ ..................... 66 5.2.2 ENVI - met Limitations ................................ ................................ ............................. 67 5.2.3 Simulation Process ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 67 5.2.4 Simulation Scenario ................................ ................................ ................................ . 68 6. Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 70 6.1 Air Temperatures ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 70 6.2 Surface Temperatures ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 74 7. Economic Analysis of Retrofit ................................ ................................ .......................... 80 7.1 Introduction to the Economic Analysis Method ................................ ............................ 80 7.1.1 Net Present Value (NPV) ................................ ................................ ........................ 80 7.1.2 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ................................ ................................ .................. 81 7.1.3 Payback Period (PBP) ................................ ................................ ............................. 81 8. Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 82 8.1 Conclusive Remarks ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 82 8.2 Trigger for Research and Further Proposals ................................ ................................ .. 85 References ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 88
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heal.advisorName
Meir, Isaac A.
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heal.committeeMemberName
Papadopoulos, Agis
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heal.committeeMemberName
Anastaselos, Dimitrios
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heal.committeeMemberName
Meir, Isaac A.
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heal.academicPublisher
IHU
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heal.academicPublisherID
ihu
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heal.numberOfPages
92
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heal.spatialCoverage
Greece
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