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Gazgazi, Viktoria
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dc.date.accessioned
2016-05-05T15:00:31Z
dc.date.available
2016-05-06T00:00:28Z
dc.date.issued
2016-05-05
dc.identifier.uri
https://repository.ihu.edu.gr//xmlui/handle/11544/14481
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Default License
dc.title
Early Christian Church Architecture at the Thracian Coast of Bulgaria of the Black Sea Region.
en
heal.type
masterThesis
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heal.creatorID.email
v.gazgazi@ihu.edu.gr
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Black Sea Coast (Bulgaria)--Antiquities
heal.keywordURI.LCSH
Churches--Black Sea Coast (Bulgaria)
heal.language
en
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heal.access
free
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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0
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heal.references
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VIII, Athens, Paris 1983 Frank 2000: Frank G., The Memory of the Eyes. Pilgrims to Living Saints in Christian Late Antiquity , Berkeley, Los Angeles, London 2000 Georgiev 2006: Georgiev P., «Odessos - Theodoriada. A Center of Monophysitism During the 6 th Century (The Djanavara Church and its Syro - Mesopothamian Feat ures), » in: Early Christian Martyrs and Relics and their Veneration in East and West, International Conference, Varna, November 20th – 23th, 2003, Acta Musei Varnaensis IV (2006) 291 - 308 Gkioles 1987: Gkioles N., Βπδαληηλή λανδνκία (600 - 1204), Athens 1987 Grabar 1946: Grabar A., Martyrium. Recherches sur le culte des reliques et l’art chrétien antique I, Paris 1946 Hoddinott 1963: Hoddinott R.F., Early Byzantine Churches in Macedonia and Southern Serbia , London 1963 Hoddinott 1975: Hoddinott R.F., Bulgaria in Antiquity, An Archaeological Introduction, London and Tonbridge 1975 Hunt 1982: Hunt E.D., Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire, AD 312 - 460 , Oxford 1982 Iotov , Minchev 2013: Iotov Β., Minchev Α., Φξνύξην από ηελ Ύζηεξε Αξραηόηεηα ζην Αθξωηήξην Άγηνο Αζαλάζηνο, Τοςπιζηικό εγσειπίδιο [ sic ], Sofia 2013 82 Jakobs 1987: Jakobs P.H.F., Die frühchristlichen Ambonen Griechenlands , Bonn 1987 Janin 1953: Janin R., La géographie ecclésiastique de l’empire byzantin, Première partie: Le siège de Constantinople et le Patriarcat Œcuménique, III. Les églises et les monastères , Paris 1953 Kautsch 1936: Kautsch R., Kapitellstudien. Beitrage zu einer Geschichte des spätanti ken Kapitells im Osten vom vierten bis ins siebente Jahrhundert , Berlin 1936 Kostova, Popkonstantinov and Higham : Kostova R., Popkonstantinov K. and Higham T., Relics of the Baptist: Scientific Research Planned for the Finds Excavated in Sozopol, Bulgaria in 2010 (Radiocarbon Dating, DNA Testing) https://www .sjc.ox.ac.uk/3996/Relics%20of%20the%20baptist_scientific%20r esearch.pdf.download Kötting 1950: Kötting B., Peregrinatio religiosa. Wallfahrten in der Antike und das Pilgerwesen in der alten Kirche , Münster 1950 Koukouli - Chrysanthaki, Bakirtzis 1997: Kouko uli - Chrysanthaki Ch., Bakirtzis Ch., Φίιηππνη , Athens 1997 Krautheimer 1986: Krautheimer R., Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture , New Haven, London 1986 (4th ed. with Sl. Ćurčić) Mamaloukos 2013: Mamaloukos St., « Issues Regarding the Reconstruction of the Original Form of the Church of Saint Titos in Gortyna, » DeltChAE 34 (2013) 11 - 24 Mango 1978: Mango C., « The Date of the Studius Basilica at Istanbul, » B&MGS 4 (1978) 115 - 122 Mango 1985: Mango C., Le développement urbain de Constantinople, IVe - VIIe siècles , Paris 1985 Mango 1990: Mango C., Constantine‘s Mausoleum and the Translation of Relics, ByzZ 83 (1990) 51 - 62 Mango 1998: Mango C., « The Origins of the Blachernae Shrine at Constantinople ,» in: Acta XII congressus interna tionalis Archaeologiae Christianae , vol. II, Città del Vaticano, Split 1998, 61 - 76 Maraval 1985: Maraval P. , Lieux Saints et pèlerinages d'Orient.Histoire et géographie des origines à la conquête arabe , Paris 1985 Mathews 1977: Mathews Th.F., The Early Churches of Constantinople: Architecture and Liturgy , University Park, London 1977 Mijatev 1974: Mijatev K., Die mittelalterliche Baukunst in Bulgarien, Sofia 1974 Minchev 1986: Minchev A., «Rannoto hristijanstvo v Odesos i okolnostite mu,» Izv Varna 20 (1 986) 31 - 42 Minchev 2006: Minchev A., « Early Christian Double Crypt with Reliquaries at Khan Krum Street in Varna (Ancient Odessos), » in: Early Christian Martyrs and Relics and their Veneration in East and West, International Conference, Varna, November 20th – 23th, 2003, Acta Musei Varnaensis IV (2006) 229 - 258 83 Minchev 2012: Minchev A., « From Proconnesos to Odessos: Unfinished Roman Marbles from Odessos and Marcinopolis (2 nd – 3 rd c. A.D. ,» in: Histria Ant 21, 49 - 60 Minchev 2013: Minchev A., « Ten Less Investigated Late Antique Fortresses on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast (4 th – Early 7 th Century AD), » in: Karagianni Fl., ed., Medieval Ports in North Aegean and the Black Sea, Links to the Maritime Routes of the East, Proceedings, International Symposium, Thessalonike, 4 - 6/12/2013 , Thessalonike 2013, 248 - 275 Obolensky 1971: Obolensky D., The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500 - 1453, New York, Washington D.C. 1971 Pace 2000: Pace V., Tesori dell’ arte cristinana in Bulgaria , exhibition catalogue, Sofia 2000 Pallas 1950: Pallas D ., «Απσαιολογικά - Λειηοςπγικά,» EEBS 20 (1950) 265 - 313 Pallas 1980: Pall a s D ., « L ‘é difice cultuel chr é tien et la liturgie dans l ‘ Illyricum Oriental ,» in : Δηζεγήζεηο ηνπ Γεθάηνπ Γηεζλνύο Σπλεδξίνπ Χξηζηηαληθήο Αξραηνινγίαο, Θεζζαινλίθε, 28 Σεπηεκβξίνπ – 4 Οθηωβξίνπ 1980 , Thessalonike 1980 , 497 - 570 Panaiotova, Drazheva 2003: Panaiotova K., Drazheva Z., «Apollonia Pontica – Sozopol , »in: Ivanov R., ed., Roman and Early Byzantine Settlements in Bulgaria, 2, Sofia 2003, 215 - 250 Pasadaios 1965: PasadaiosA ., Δπί δύν βπδαληηλώλ κλεκείωλ ηεο Κωλζηαληηλνππόιεωο αγλώζηνπ νλνκαζίαο , Athens 1965 Pelekanidou , Mentzos 1990: PelekanidouE ., MentzosA ., « Οκηάγωνο Φιλίππων : ππώηα ζςμπεπάζμαηα μεηά ηιρ νεόηεπερ έπεςνερ ,» in : Πξαθηηθά Αξραηνινγηθνύ Σπλεδξίνπ , Πόιηο θαη Χώξα ζηελ Αξραία Μαθεδνλία θαη Θξάθε , Μλήκε Γ . Λαδαξίδε , Καβάια 9 - 11 Μαΐνπ 1986 , Thessaloniki 1990, 597 - 607 Peschlow 1977: Peschlow U., Die Irenenkirche in Istanbul. Untersuchungen zur Architektur , Tübingen 1977 Popkonstantinov et al. 2010: Popkonstantinov K. et al., «Srednovekoven manastir ̳Sv. Ioan Prodrom‘ na ostrov ̳Sv. Ivan‘, Sozopol,» in: Arheologićeski otkritija I razkopki za 2009 godina , Sofia 2010, 595 - 599 Popkonstantinov et al. 2011: Popkonstantinov K., et al. «Srednovekoven manastir ̳Sv. Ioan Prodrom‘ na ostrov ̳Sv. Ivan‘, Sozopol,» in: Arheologićeski otkritija I razkopki za 2010 godina , Sofia 2011, 500 - 504 Popov s.d.: Popov B., Varna, Tourist Guid e , Varna s.d. Runciman 1930: Runciman St. , A History of the First Bulgarian Empire , London 1930 Sodini, Kolokotsas 1984: Sodini J. - P., Kolokotsas K., Aliki II: La basilique double, Études Thasiennes X , Paris 1984 Spieser 1984: Spieser J. - M., Thessalonique et ses monuments du IVe au Vie siècle. Contribution à l’étude d’une ville paléochrétienne , Athènes, Paris 1984 84 Stanev, Zhdrakov 2009: Stanev St., Zhdrakov Z., «The Old Metropolitan Church in Nessebar/ Mesembria after New Epigraphical 7 th Century Evidence,» ABulg XIII (2009) 87 - 101 Sweetman, Katsara 2002: Sweetman R., Katsara E., « The Acropolis Basilica Project, Sparta: A Preliminary Report for the 2000 Season, » BSA 97 (2002) 429 - 468 Theoklieva - Stoycheva 2009: Theoklieva - Stoycheva E ., Η ηνπνγξαθία ηεο Μεζεκβξίαο ηνπ Δπμείλνπ Πόληνπ από ηνλ 4 ν έωο ηηο αξρέο ηνπ 7 νπ αηώλα, Alexandroupolis 2009 Vanderheyde , Pochaska 2011: Vanderheyde C., Prochaska W., «Le marbre en Bulgarie à la période byzantine : l‘apport de l‘étude des sculptures architecturales de Sozo pol,» BCH 135, 351 - 375 Vanderheyde 2012: Vanderheyde C., « The Architectural Decoration of the Early Byzantine Churches on the West Coast of the Black Sea, » Probl Ι sk 2012/2, 6 - 9 Varalis 2004: Varalis I., « Παπαηηπήζειρ ζηην παλαιοσπιζηιανική ναοδομία ηηρ Κπήηηρ ,» in: Creta Romana e Protobizantina, Atti del congresso internazionale, Iraklion, 23 - 30 settembre 2000 , vol. III, Padova 2004, 813 - 838 Varalis 2006 a : Varalis Y.D., « Prothesis and Diakonikon: searching the Original Concept of the Subsidiary Spaces of the Byzantine Sanctuary ,» in: Lidov A, ed., Hierotopy. The Creation of Sacred Spaces in Byzantium and Medieval Russia , Moscow 2006, 282 - 298 Varalis 2006 b : VaralisY ., «Η ππόθεζη και ηο διακονικό καηά ηην παλαιοσπιζηιανική πεπίοδο. Τα δεδομένα ηων πηγών,» in : Hadjitryphonos E ., Kara gianni Fl ., eds ., Βςζανηινή απσιηεκηονική και λαηπεςηική ππάξη. Ππακηικά , ΑΙΜΟΣ - ΕΜΜΑΒΠ , Σεμινάπιο 1 ο , Thesslonike 2006, 36 - 44 Varalis 2008 a : Varalis I ., « Revered Prototypes ? Constantinian Churches and their later Imitations in the Balkans,», in: M. Rakocija, ed., Niš and Byzantium, Sixth Symposium, Niš, 3 - 5 June 2007, The Collection of Scientific Works , vol. VI , Ni š 2008, 99 - 112 Varalis 2008 b : Varalis I ., « Τα πποζκηίζμαηα ηων παλαιοσπιζηιανικών εκκληζιών,» in : Karagianni Fl ., ed ., Τα πξνζθηίζκαηα ηωλ παιαηνρξηζηηαληθώλ, βπδαληηλώλ θαη κεηαβπδαληηλώλ λαώλ, Δηζαγωγηθέο νκηιίεο, ζεκαηηθέο θαη ειεύζεξεο παξεκβάζεηο, Αξραηνινγηθό Μνπζείν Θεζζαινλίθεο, 16 Ινπ λίνπ 2006, ΑΙΜΟΣ - ΔΜΜΑΒΠ, Σεκηλάξην 2 ν , Θεζζαλον ίκη 2008, 70 - 83 Velkov 1964: Velkov V., « Prinos k‘m materialnata kultura na srednovekovnja Sozopol ,» BIBulg 27 (1964) 43 - 54 Vémi 1989: Vémi V., Les chapiteaux ioniques à imposte de Grèce à l’époque paléochrétienne, BCH Suppl . XVII, Athens, Paris Vocotopoulos 1992: Vocotopoulos P.L., Η εθθιεζηαζηηθή αξρηηεθηνληθή εηο ηελ Γπηηθήλ Σηεξεάλ Διιάδα θαη ηελ Ήπεηξνλ από ηνπ ηέινπο ηνπ 7 νπ κέρξη ηνπ ηέινπο ηνπ 10 νπ αηώλνο , Βπδαληηλά κλεκεία 2, Thessalonike 1992 (2nded.) Vocotopoulos 2011: Vocotopoulos P.L., « Ecclesiastical Architecture on the Thracian Shores of the Black Sea, » in: Tourta A., ed., Icons from the Thracian Coast of the Black Sea , exhibition catalogue, Thessalonike, Museum of Byzantine Culture, November 26th, 2011 – March 4th, 2012 , Athens 2011, 27 - 39 85 Wilkinson 2002: Wilkinson J., Jerusalem Pilgrims before the Crusades , Warminster 2002
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heal.recordProvider
School of Humanities, MA in Black Sea & Eastern Mediterranean Studies
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heal.publicationDate
2016-02-29
heal.abstract
4 Abstract In this essay I study the Early Christian churches along the coastline of the Black Sea and, in particular, those which have come to light on the co astline of present - day Bulgaria, because they present an interesting aspect of the history and culture of the Black Sea area duri ng Late Antiquity . In my research, I have decided to include the town of Callatis, too, which belonged to the province of Scythia during the time period under consideration but today is part of modern Romania, close to the borders with Bulgaria. Hence, I b elieve that this town should also be included in my research, so that the picture I form regarding the Early Christian churches of the west coasts of the Black Sea is as complete as possible. In order to answer the question if these areas were influenced i n all aspects by the capital of the empire, Constantinople, I decided to structure a detailed list of the churches which have been studied partly or in whole in the Bulgarian coastline and in the town of Callatis. To be able to answer this question, it was necessary to do a comparative study of church building on the Bulgarian coastline and that of Constantinople. In the first chapter, I study the architectural typology of the churches , I investigate the way in which churches were built and underline any ex ceptions or particularities in their architectural types. Furthermore , I examine the specific parts of the churches (the apse and presbytery, nave, aisles, narthex , annexes ). In the second chapter, I focus on the functional constructions of the churches . F inally, in the third chapter, I investigate the role of every church in the place where it was founded. After the architectural study of the sacred buildings and the drawing of the conclusions, following the analysis of the individual components of ecclesi astical architecture , we could quite safely claim that the churches on the west coasts of the Black Sea do not represent exact copies or replicas of the ecclesiastical prototypes that have been adopted in Constantinople. The churches examined here were dee ply influenced but adopted only several of the characteristics of the churches in the capital in a selective way. The sacred buildings in the provinces of Haemimontus, Moesia Secunda and Scythia never achieved the character or the grandeur of the temples of Constantinople. What is more, it seems that in several cases the influence that was exercised on them originated from other areas , as well
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heal.tableOfContents
Abstract p. 4 Acknowledgments p. 5 Map p. 6 Introduction p. 7 Chapter 1: The Architecture of the Churches 1.1. The architectural type p. 10 1.2. The apse p. 14 1.3. The nave p. 16 1.4. The narthex and exonarthex p. 18 1.5. The atrium p. 21 1.6. The annexes p. 22 Chapter 2: The Liturgical Construction s 2. 1. The sanctuary p. 25 2. 2. The ambo p. 27 2. 3. Constructed benches p. 28 2. 4. The fountain of the atrium p.29 Chapter 3: The Destination of the Churches 3. 1. Episcopal churches p. 30 3. 2. Cemetery churches p. 30 3. 3. Privileged tombs and Martyr churches p. 31 Conclusions p. 32 Appendix: Catalogue of the Churches p. 35 List of illustrations p. 55 Illustrations p. 58 Bibliography – Abbreviations p. 80
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heal.advisorName
Varalis, Ioannis
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heal.committeeMemberName
Mentzos, Aristotelis
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heal.committeeMemberName
Karagianni, Flora
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heal.academicPublisher
IHU
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heal.academicPublisherID
ihu
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heal.numberOfPages
85
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heal.spatialCoverage
Black Sea Coast (Bulgaria)
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